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PTSD Psychotherapy is Enhanced with D-Cycloserine

04 June 2012 Elsevier

Reports new study in Biological Psychiatry

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is
among the most common, distressing, and disabling medical consequences
of combat or other extremely stressful life events. The first-line
treatment for PTSD is exposure therapy, a type of behavioral therapy
where patients confront their fears in a safe environment. Although it
is an effective treatment, many patients still experience symptoms after
treatment and there is a relatively high drop-out rate.

In an effort to improve existing treatments, a new study appearing in
Biological Psychiatry this week has tested a novel hypothesis about the
treatment of PTSD derived from prior work in animal models and other
anxiety disorders. They examined whether the impact of psychotherapy
could be enhanced by administering D-cycloserine (DCS), a drug that does
not directly treat the symptoms of PTSD, but rather promotes
neuroplasticity, i.e., makes brain circuits better able to remodel
themselves in the context of experience.

To test this, researchers recruited individuals with PTSD, all of whom
received up to 10 weekly sessions of exposure therapy. They were
randomized to receive doses of either DCS or placebo before each
session, but did not know which they were receiving. The severity of
their symptoms was assessed before and after treatment.

All patients experienced a reduction in symptoms due to the exposure
therapy, regardless of whether they had received DCS augmentation or
placebo. However, DCS did enhance the effects of exposure therapy in a
specific subgroup of patients. Those who had more severe PTSD prior to
treatment and needed longer treatment had a greater reduction in
symptoms when they received DCS, compared to those who received placebo.

"Our study showed that some PTSD patients respond well and fast to
exposure and for them, there seems no need to augment the therapy. In
contrast, those patients with severe PTSD symptoms and who fail to
respond to exposure sessions may benefit from augmentation with DCS,"
explained first author Dr. Rianne de Kleine. "It seems that DCS is
beneficial for exactly those patients we aimed for: the more severe
patients who do not respond to first-line treatment."

"This approach may have important implications for the treatment of
PTSD. Two decades of brain research suggests that severe psychological
stress causes atrophy of some of the fine connections in the brain and
reductions in the volume of brain regions involved in emotion and
memory. Thus, individuals with PTSD may have deficits in neuroplasticity
that get in the way of effective treatment," commented Dr. John Krystal,
Editor of Biological Psychiatry. "D-cycloserine may reduce this deficit
in neuroplasticity and increase the response to psychotherapy, in this
case a psychotherapy approach that involves exposing people to reminders
and memories of the trauma."

The authors conclude that additional work is warranted to explore
whether this combination can become an effective intervention to treat
the symptoms of PTSD.

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